Publications

Veterinary Students' Use of Crib Sheets in Preparing for Learning and Reducing Stress

Authors

Catherine Vogelweid
Tracy Kitchel
Amber H. Rice

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine actual and perceptional differences in utilizing crib sheets for a Virology course in veterinary sciences. The objectives guiding the study were to describe the exam scores of Virology course students, describe the differences amongst exam scores of Virology course students and to describe perceptions of the use of crib sheets for Virology exams by students. The researchers found exams allowing the use of a crib sheets had higher averages than exams that did not allow crib sheet use. Student perceptions of crib sheet use were that it helped them to reinforce, remember and retain course material. Students also indicated they would prefer to use the crib sheet on other exams in Virology and in additional courses. Finally, the stress levels reported by students were lower during exams that allowed them to use a crib sheet.

Vogelweid, C. M., Kitchel, T., & Rice, A. H. (2014). Veterinary students’ use of crib sheets inpreparing for learning and reducing stress. NACTA Journal, 58(2), 135-139.

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2014

Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Experiences in and Anticipation of Content Knowledge Preparation

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

This study explored the experiences of preservice agriculture teachers in content knowledge preparation for pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. The researchers employed a phenomenological approach in which six preservice teachers were interviewed the semester prior to student teaching. The researchers found there was general dissatisfaction with the majority of agriculture content courses among preservice teachers in terms of quality, quantity, and transferability of content. Interest in agriculture content areas, their views of expertise, and what they want their students to gain from their teaching were found to be possible influencers affecting the PCK development of preservice agriculture teachers. These findings provide support for further research to explore gaps in content knowledge and the professions' understanding of PCK development in novice agriculture teachers. Recommendations include considering ways to incorporate content knowledge in pedagogy courses or working with content faculty on developing assignments to help preservice teachers learn content in meaningful ways

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2015). Preservice agricultural education teachers’ experiences in andanticipation of content knowledge preparation. Journal of Agricultural Education, 56(3), 90-104. doi:10.5032/jae.2015.03090

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2015

The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a framework to guide the study. On the job teaching experience, teacher preparation program, high school agriculture experience, previous agriculturally related jobs and internships, internet and other media, and professional development were all reported as effective sources of content knowledge. All six of the PCK knowledge constructs were perceived by teachers as possessing them to a fair extent. The content knowledge constructs were rated higher on average than the PCK constructs. Stepwise multiple linear regressions were utilized to determine if linear relationships existed between perceived PCK bases and sources of content knowledge. Four of the PCK knowledge constructs yielded statistically significant predictive models. Six of the seven sources of content knowledge were significant predictors for at least one of the constructs. Future research should include going beyond teachers' perceptions and measuring PCK and examination into the process from the sources of content knowledge to the development of PCK.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2015). The relationship between agriculture knowledge bases for teaching and sources of knowledge. Journal of Agricultural Education, 56(4), 153-168. doi:10.5032/jae.2015.04153

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2015

Deconstructing Content Knowledge: Coping Strategies and Their Underlying Influencers for Beginning Agriculture Teachers

The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore how beginning agriculture teachers break down content knowledge for student understanding. The overarching theme that emerged during data collection and analysis was beginning teachers' self-perceived content knowledge deficiency in various subjects within agriculture. This initial finding guided subsequent collection and analysis which focused on how teachers coped with this feeling of inadequacy in content and the underlying influencers that guided those actions. Various coping strategies occurred during planning and in-the-moment teaching stages. Underlying influencers for choosing a particular coping strategy included a combination of internal and external influencers. External influencers included structure of the school environment, individual department structure, and offering agriculture courses for core content credit. Internal influencers included teachers' content interest, perceived credibility as a content teacher, and philosophies regarding agricultural education. Recommendations include reconciling the purpose of agricultural education in teacher preparation programs, creating more accessible professional development opportunities, and examining experienced teachers in the field for similar findings.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2016). Deconstructing content knowledge: Coping strategies and their underlying influencers for beginning agriculture teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 57(3), 208-222. doi:10.5032/jae/2016/03208

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2016

Deconstructing Content Knowledge: Coping Strategies and Their Underlying Influencers for Beginning Agriculture Teachers

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore how beginning agriculture teachers break down content knowledge for student understanding. The overarching theme that emerged during data collection and analysis was beginning teachers' self-perceived content knowledge deficiency in various subjects within agriculture. This initial finding guided subsequent collection and analysis which focused on how teachers coped with this feeling of inadequacy in content and the underlying influencers that guided those actions. Various coping strategies occurred during planning and in-the-moment teaching stages. Underlying influencers for choosing a particular coping strategy included a combination of internal and external influencers. External influencers included structure of the school environment, individual department structure, and offering agriculture courses for core content credit. Internal influencers included teachers' content interest, perceived credibility as a content teacher, and philosophies regarding agricultural education. Recommendations include reconciling the purpose of agricultural education in teacher preparation programs, creating more accessible professional development opportunities, and examining experienced teachers in the field for similar findings.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2016). Deconstructing content knowledge: Coping strategies and their underlying influencers for beginning agriculture teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 57(3), 208-222. doi:10.5032/jae/2016/03208

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2016

Influence of Knowledge of Content and Students on Beginning Agriculture Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Content

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

This study explored experiences of beginning agriculture teachers' approaches to teaching content. The research question guiding the study was: how does agriculture teachers' knowledge of content and students influence their process of breaking down content knowledge for teaching? The researchers employed a grounded theory approach in which five beginning teachers were interviewed and observed teaching a lesson. The researchers found beginning teachers' knowledge of content and students greatly influenced how they broke down content knowledge for student understanding. Five major themes emerged: students' prior knowledge and enrollment in sequences of courses influenced content covered, student engagement methods were not primarily driven by content, differing perceptions of content difficulty for students shaped teaching decisions, deconstructing content for students was deemed important by teachers, and teachers engaged in a form of learning egocentrism. These findings support further research on teachers' development of pedagogical content knowledge, including knowledge of content and students overtime as it was found to be an influential knowledge base. Recommendations include providing teachers with more opportunities to explore integrating student's prior knowledge into the curriculum and incorporating student thinking about agriculture content more specifically in teacher preparation.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2016). Influence of knowledge of content and students on beginning agriculture teachers’ approaches to teaching content. Journal of Agricultural Education, 57(4), 86-100. doi:10.5032/jae.2016.04086

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2016

The Influence of Crib Sheets on Veterinary Students Exam Performance, Perceived Stress, and Retention of Subject Matter Knowledge

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Catherine M. Vogelweid
Tracy Kitchel

The purpose of this two-year longitudinal study was to examine the performance of veterinary students on exams utilizing crib sheets to determine their effects on exam performance, perceived exam stress, and retention of subject matter knowledge. Scores for individual exams where crib sheets were permitted were compared with exam scores where crib sheets were not permitted utilizing one-sample t-tests. One-sample t-tests were also utilized to determine the influence of crib sheets on subject matter knowledge retention for a cumulative exam. A questionnaire was distributed to capture students' perceptions about the value of crib sheets. Researchers found crib sheet use enhanced student exam performance, but did not improve retention of subject matter knowledge. Results from the questionnaire indicated students perceived crib sheet use as a way decrease exam anxiety and provide support during studying and testing. Disadvantages surfaced by students included that crib sheets could be used as a crutch and could decrease learning. It is recommended that instruction on strategies for use be implemented in any course using crib sheets. Overall, crib sheet use was perceived as positive by students and could be a viable way to combat high levels of anxiety and depression in veterinary students.

Rice, A. H., Vogelweid, C. M., & Kitchel, T. (2017). The influence of crib sheets on veterinary students’ exam performance, perceived stress, and retention of subject matter knowledge. NACTA Journal, 61(1), 66-72.

[Faculty]

 

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Date of publication:
2017

Teachers' Beliefs about the Purpose of Agricultural Education and its Influence on their Pedagogical Content Knowledge

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to conceptualize the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The overarching theme that emerged during data collection and analysis was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This finding guided subsequent data collection and analysis that focused on what was shaping the participants' PCK in plant sciences. The integrated beliefs system was the driving force in shaping the participants' PCK and the primary component of this system was the participants' beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education. These individual purposes for agricultural education included: career preparation, college preparation, practical life skills, agricultural literacy, and student individualization. These purposes influenced the type of experiences teachers sought out to develop new knowledge and how they transferred that knowledge in the classroom. These findings support further examination of how beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education are influencing teacher knowledge and practice.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2017). Teachers’ beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education and its influence on their pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Agricultural Education, 58(2), 198-213. doi:10.5032/jae/2017.02198

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2017

Teachers' Beliefs about the Purpose of Agricultural Education and its Influence on their Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to conceptualize the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The overarching theme that emerged during data collection and analysis was the influence of beliefs on participants' PCK. This finding guided subsequent data collection and analysis that focused on what was shaping the participants' PCK in plant sciences. The integrated beliefs system was the driving force in shaping the participants' PCK and the primary component of this system was the participants' beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education. These individual purposes for agricultural education included: career preparation, college preparation, practical life skills, agricultural literacy, and student individualization. These purposes influenced the type of experiences teachers sought out to develop new knowledge and how they transferred that knowledge in the classroom. These findings support further examination of how beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education are influencing teacher knowledge and practice.

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2018

Shaping pedagogical content knowledge for experienced agriculture teachers in the plant science: A grounded theory

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The most emergent phenomenon to surface from the data was the influence of beliefs on participants’ PCK. This central phenomenon became the cornerstone for the model of what was shaping experienced agriculture teachers’ PCK in the plant sciences. The three major components that shaped the participants’ PCK were: integrated belief systems, experiences prior to and during inservice, and the influence of the school and community context. A substantive level theory was developed that illustrated relationships between these three main components and their impact on participants’ PCK. Recommendations from this study include conceptualization of experienced agriculture teachers’ PCK for a variety of agriculture topic areas and exploration into the development of PCK in preservice and beginning teachers.

Rice, A. H., & Kitchel, T. (2017). Shaping pedagogical content knowledge for experienced agriculture teachers in the plant science: A grounded theory. Journal of Agricultural Education, 58(4), 50-64. doi:10.5032/jae.2017.04050.

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2017

A Case Study of Technology Mediated Observation in Pre-Service Teaching Experiences for edTPA Implementation

Authors

Emilia Dover Jackson
Kathleen Kelsey
Amber H. Rice

Agricultural education teacher preparation programs across the United States are implementing highstakes teacher performance assessments to better prepare pre-service teachers for the rigors of classroom teaching. During pilot implementation of edTPA, a standardized teacher performance-based assessment, University of Georgia (UGA) teacher preparation unit implemented a technology mediated observation (TMO) protocol to replace one of three face-to-face observations conducted by university supervisors. The instrumental case study reported here explores the outcomes of the TMO experience from the emic perspective of the pre-service teachers, their cooperating teachers, and university supervisors. Findings indicate that TMO overall was a positive experience for pre-service teachers because they engaged in self-monitoring, reflexive teaching practices, and it created opportunities for participants to collaborate with other professionals in their placement sites. We conclude that the use of TMO was overall beneficial to the pre-service teaching experience by enhancing reflective behavior among participants to improve teaching practice. To improve the practice of using TMO, teacher educators should provide wellplanned processes for the pre-service teaching cohort. Future research should focus on how TMO can be used to improve quality instruction in the student teaching experience.

[Faculty]

Dover, E., Kelsey, K., & Rice, A. H. (2018). A case study of technology mediated observation in pre-service teaching experiences for edTPA implementation. NACTA Journal, 62(1).

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Date of publication:
2018

Agriculture Teachers’ Integrated Belief Systems and its Influence on their Pedagogical Content Knowledge

Authors

Amber H. Rice
Tracy Kitchel

This grounded theory study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of experienced agriculture teachers in the plant sciences. The central phenomenon that emerged during data collection and analysis was the influence of beliefs on shaping participants’ PCK. This finding guided subsequent collection and analysis that resulted in the following central research question: what shapes experienced agriculture teachers’ PCK in plant sciences? The data presented here focused on the most emergent category shaping PCK, integrated belief systems, which included participants’ beliefs about the purpose of agricultural education, beliefs about plant science education, and beliefs about teaching and learning in agricultural education. A substantive level theory was developed that illustrated the relationships between the three belief components on participants’ PCK. These findings support further investigation into how beliefs are shaping agriculture teachers’ PCK in plant sciences and other agriculture content areas.

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2018

Applying Eye-Tracking Research in Education and Communication to Agricultural Education and Communication: A Review of Literature

Authors

Holli R. Leggette
Amber H. Rice
Candis Carraway
Marshall A. Baker
Nathan Conner

The purpose of this integrative literature review was to synthesize the eye-tracking literature related to education and communication in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) to formulate a conceptual model and develop a research agenda that guides eye-tracking research in agricultural education and communication. To do so, we reviewed the literature to identify basic elements of eye-tracking research, examined specific variables related to eye-tracking research, and synthesized the findings into a conceptual model. We found and reviewed 77 articles published between 2010 and 2016 within education (56) and communication (21). Research implications for agricultural education included an examination of classroom management practices, a comparison of novice and experienced instructors, and an exploration of educational settings. Research implications for agricultural communication included tracking fixation and frequency of eye movement when viewing advertisements and understanding the relationship between brand placement and buying decisions. Synthesizing the research in education and communication, we identified the audiences, concepts, environments, and variables related to eye tracking that could be investigated within agricultural education and communication. In conclusion, we found a lack of agricultural education and communication studies cited in the SSCI, eye-tracking technology provides variables to support a multivariate approach in agricultural education and communication, and eye-tracking equipment is expensive, which may limit diffusion in some settings.

[Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2018

Examining the entrepreneurial leadership proclivities of Extension educators

Authors

Ashley Jeffers-Sample
Matthew M. Mars
Amber H. Rice
Robert M. Torres

Jeffers-Sample, A., Mars, M. M., Rice, A. H., & Torres, R. M. (in press). Examining the entrepreneurial leadership proclivities of Extension educators. Journal of Extension. [Graduate Student]

Date of publication:
2018

When Teaching Makes a Difference: Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study

Authors

A. M. Wooditch
A. H. Rice
J.B. Peake
E.D. Rubenstein

Wooditch, A. M.*, Rice, A. H., Peake, J. B., & Rubenstein, E. D. (in press). The development of preservice agriculture teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through a greenhouse for teachers course. Journal of Agricultural Education.

[Faculty]

Date of publication:
2018

Preservice Agriculture Teachers Development of Knowledge of Content and Students During their Student Teaching Experience

Authors

AJ Argueta

Five pre-service teachers were analyzed to determine how they adjusted their content based on the knowledge of their students, a concept described as knowledge of content and students (KCS). The teachers all taught the same unit (plant parts and functions) and were analyzed through their lesson plans, a pre-interview before teaching the unit, a post-interview after the unit and one lesson observation within the unit. The findings were then coded by the researcher using a pedagogical content knowledge framework and revealed six major themes about the development of a pre-service knowledge of content and students. [Graduate Student]

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Date of publication:
2018

Science and engineering doctoral student socialization, logics, and the national economic agenda: Alignment or disconnect?

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Kate Bresonis
Katalin Szelényi

This study explores the institutional logics and socialization experiences of STEM doctoral students in the context of the current American economic narrative that is specific to science and technology. Data from qualitative interviews with 36 students at three research universities first reveals a disconnect between a well-established national science and technology policy narrative that is market-oriented and the training, experiences, and perspectives of science and engineering doctoral students. Findings also indicate science and engineering doctoral students mostly understand entrepreneurship and innovation in the contexts of funding research activities and creating social impact, which parallel rather than oppose dominant academic values and norms. Based on the findings, we contend that it is both possible and prudent for universities and graduate programs to pursue strategies that align science and engineering doctoral education with the current national economic agenda and support the personal, professional values and perspectives of students without coming in conflict with the scientific core of the academy.

[Faculty] Mars, Matthew M., Kate Bresonis & Katalin Szelényi (2014). Science and engineering doctoral student socialization, logics, and the national economic agenda: Alignment or disconnect? Minerva, 52 (3), 351-379.

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Date of publication:
2014

Who am I versus who can I become? Exploring women’s science identities in STEM Ph.D. programs

Authors

Katalin Szelényi
Kate Bresonis
Matthew M. Mars
This article explores the science identities of 21 women STEM Ph.D. students at three research universities in the United States. Following a narrative approach, the findings depict five salient science identities, including those of a) academic, b) entrepreneurial, c) industrial, and d) policy scientist and e) scientist as community educator. Our study links the five science identities to epistemological approaches in knowledge creation and application and describes the ways in which women STEM doctoral students verified their identities in reaction to various social structures. Conclusions relate to concepts of identity confirmation, suppression, and flexibility to implications for policy and practice. [Graduate Student] Szelényi, Katalin, Kate Bresonis & Matthew M. Mars (2016). Who am I versus who can I become? Exploring women’s science identities in STEM Ph.D. programs. Review of Higher Education, 40(1), 1-31. doi: 10.1353/rhe.2016.0036

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Date of publication:
2016

Developing collegiate student proclivities to entrepreneurial leadership

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Robert M. Torres

Individuals with skills specific to innovation and entrepreneurial strategy are in high demand within the contemporary workforce. This demand transcends most, if not all, professions and career paths. Yet, entrepreneurial leadership education continues to be viewed mostly as a business-oriented domain. We expand the otherwise narrow scope of entrepreneurial leadership education through an examination of the effects of an interdisciplinary, project-based entrepreneurial leadership course on student proclivities to leading change. We used a retrospective pre- and post-measure pre-experimental design to conduct the study. Our findings indicate an increase across the sample (n = 62) in entrepreneurial leadership proclivity following course completion. The insights we generate reveal opportunities for strengthening collegiate entrepreneurial leadership curriculum and instruction and enhancing the capacities of students to become effective leaders of change (i.e., change agents). [faculty]

 

Mars, Matthew M. & Robert M. Torres (forthcoming). Developing collegiate student proclivities to entrepreneurial leadership. The Journal of Leadership Education. (Accepted: December 20, 2017).

Date of publication:
2018

The value of a metaphor: Organizations and ecosystems

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Judith L. Bronstein
Organizational scholars often adopt biological models to explain the emergence and evolution of organizations and human systems. One recent example of such adoption is the organizational ecosystem metaphor. In this article, we contend that taking a rigorous ecological approach over the application of loose ecosystem language has the potential to illuminate patterns in the life span of organizations and human systems. We first define five central properties of biological ecosystems and demonstrate their potential relevance to human-constructed systems (organizational ecosystems). We then argue the value of developing biologically based hypotheses that can be tested in the context of organizational systems. Next, we propose a set of hypotheses specific to organizational stability and disruption, using Arizona charter schools as an example to demonstrate the promise of the rigorous application of the organizational ecosystem metaphor. We close with a discussion of how the insights generated might be applied across other organizational settings and systems. [Faculty] Mars, Matthew M., & Judith L. Bronstein (2017). The promise of the organizational ecosystem metaphor: An argument for biological rigor. Journal of Management Inquiry, 1-10. (Advanced online publication) doi: 10.1177/10564926177006546

Additional Information

Date of publication:
2017

The promise of the organizational ecosystem metaphor: An argument for biological rigor

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Judith L. Bronstein
Organizational scholars often adopt biological models to explain the emergence and evolution of organizations and human systems. One recent example of such adoption is the organizational ecosystem metaphor. In this article, we contend that taking a rigorous ecological approach over the application of loose ecosystem language has the potential to illuminate patterns in the life span of organizations and human systems. We first define five central properties of biological ecosystems and demonstrate their potential relevance to human-constructed systems (organizational ecosystems). We then argue the value of developing biologically based hypotheses that can be tested in the context of organizational systems. Next, we propose a set of hypotheses specific to organizational stability and disruption, using Arizona charter schools as an example to demonstrate the promise of the rigorous application of the organizational ecosystem metaphor. We close with a discussion of how the insights generated might be applied across other organizational settings and systems. [Faculty] Mars, Matthew M., & Judith L. Bronstein (2017). The promise of the organizational ecosystem metaphor: An argument for biological rigor. Journal of Management Inquiry, 1-10. (Advanced online publication) doi: 10.1177/10564926177006546

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Date of publication:
2017

The jazziness of local food work: Organization level ingenuity and the entrepreneurial formation and evolution of local food systems

Authors

Matthew M. Mars, Ph.D.
Hope J. Schau, Ph.D.

Local food systems (LFSs) are complex and diverse social structures. The processes that influence the formation and evolution of LFSs are obscure, relatively uncoordinated, and somewhat mysterious. The current study develops a stronger understanding of such processes through a qualitative exploration of the influence of routine practice work at the organization level on the entrepreneurial development of two distinct LFSs in the Southwest region of the United States (U.S.): Southeastern Arizona (SA) Albuquerque/Santa Fe (ASF) LFSs. Data were gathered between August 2014 and September 2017 through semi-structured interviews with and direct observations of 53 local food practitioners operating in one of the two LFSs. Theoretical principles of institutional entrepreneurship, embedded agency, and practice work guided the study. The findings reveal three forms of ingenuity (technological, organizational, policy) that regularly emerge through the day-to-day organization level work of local food practitioners. The system-level influence of these ingenuities, whether intentional or not, are argued to be indicators of the embedded agency of the practitioners and their capacities to serve as institutional entrepreneurs. Implications for both practice and future research are discussed. [Faculty]

 

Mars, Matthew M. & Hope J. Schau (forthcoming). The jazziness of local food work: Organization level ingenuity and the entrepreneurial formation and evolution of local food systems. Rural Sociology. (Accepted: June 26, 2018)

Date of publication:
2018

What Is Local Food Entrepreneurship? Variations in the Commercially and Socially Oriented Features of Entrepreneurship in the Southeastern Arizona Local Food System

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Hope Schau

Entrepreneurial activities are sometimes framed as market‐based strategies that compromise the integrity of the movement against the global agrifood system. Other times, scholars have argued that entrepreneurship is a critical component of local food system viability. This study helps reconcile these conflicting views through a qualitative exploration of the variations in the commercially and socially oriented features of local food entrepreneurship in the southeastern Arizona local food system. Researchers gathered data between August 2014 and December 2016 through semistructured interviews with and direct observations of 36 southeastern Arizona local food entrepreneurs. A conceptual continuum that articulates the variations between commercial and social entrepreneurship according to market condition, mission, resource mobilization, and performance measurement guides the exploration. The findings reveal commercial and social variations in local food entrepreneurship to be … [Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2017

Entrepreneurial Science and the Training and Aspirations of STEM-Focused Agriculture Graduate Students: An Exploration.

Authors

Matthew M. Mars

The academic training and professional aspirations of students enrolled in science, technology, mathematics and engineering (STEM) graduate programs in three agriculture colleges were explored in the context of the current knowledge-based economy. Particular attention was placed on how, if at all, study participants associate innovation and entrepreneurship with their research interests and intended career paths. In doing so, participant awareness of and perspective on current demands and opportunities for entrepreneurial scientists were explored. Recommendations for increasing the alignment between the so-called" knowledge economy"(Powell and Snellman, 2004) and the academic training and professional aspirations of STEM graduate students enrolled in agriculture colleges were developed. [Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2017

Research Categories

Institutional entrepreneurship and the negotiation and blending of multiple logics in the Southern Arizona local food system

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Hope Schau

In this paper, we explore the entrepreneurial leadership strategies and routine work of actors located across a diverse array of organizational settings (ie, farmers’ markets, community farms, community-supported agriculture programs, food and seed banks, local food print media) that combine to shape and sustain the Southern Arizona (AZ) local food system (LFS). We use the theoretical principles of institutional entrepreneurship and logic multiplicity to show how the strategies and routine work of local food actors at the organizational level combine to negotiate system-level meaning and structure within and across the Southern AZ LFS, which is an otherwise seemingly fragmented and contentious social space. We illustrate how the entrepreneurial work performed within multiple organizations and organizational types converge to form a hybrid (or blended) local food logic. Implications are discussed and recommendations for practice are proposed. [Faculty]

Additional Information

Date of publication:
2017

Research Categories

Graduate STEM-Based Agriculture Education and Women Agriculturalists: An Agency Perspective.

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Jeni Hart

In this paper, we explored the academic and professional aspirations, experiences, and perspectives of 11 women pursuing graduate degrees based in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields within research-intensive agriculture colleges at three land grant research universities in the United States (US). Using principles drawn from the theories of human agency (Bandura, 1989, 2001; Emirbayer & Mische, 1998; Locke, 1978; Lukes, 1973; Sewell, 1992; Terosky, Campbell, & O'Meara, 2014) and gendered organizations (Acker, 1990, 2012) as our conceptual guide, we explored the conditions and contexts that influence the academic experiences and professional trajectories of emergent women agriculturalists who are enrolled in STEM-based graduate programs. We were particularly attentive to how such experiences and trajectories aligned with agricultural environments that have been shown to be masculine (ie, large-scale farming and agribusiness, STEM … [Faculty]

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Date of publication:
2017

Research Categories

Touristic Authenticity and Value Co-Creation: An Exploration of Two Local Wineries in Southeastern Arizona, USA

Authors

Sonora Cubillas
Matthew M Mars
Robert M Torres
Patricia M Sias

Local wineries typically generate revenues and increase product exposure through touristic activities and strategies. Moreover, tourism represents an opportunity for local wineries to purposefully engage customers in the co-creation of products and services, which in turn promotes greater customer loyalty (Hollebeek & Brodie 2009). In this paper, we explore the intersection of touristic authenticity (Cohen, 1988; Wang, 1999) and value co-creation (Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004a,b) at two local wineries located in the Sonoita-Elgin Wine Region of Southeastern Arizona, USA. Our findings indicate that touristic authenticity is enhanced through the application of the four core principles of value co-creation —dialogue, accessibility, risk assessment, transparency. Based on the findings, a value co-creation guide is proposed as a practical tool to be used by local wineries to empower tourists as value co-creators. Equally important, potential spillover effects of such empowerment on the rural communities and economies in which local wineries exist are considered [Graduate Student]

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Date of publication:
2017

Research Categories

Wild greens knowledge and consumption: a qualitative exploration of human agency in the Southern Arizona food system

Authors

Teresa De Koker
Matthew M. Mars
Robert Torres
Tanya M. Quist

This qualitative, single case study explores the influence of the dominant food system (DFS) on the knowledge and consumption of three wild greens (amaranth, lambquarters, purslane) by 24 Latinxs living in Tucson, Arizona (AZ), USA. The three greens are each considered to be traditional Latinx foods. In addition to the natural occurrence of the wild greens, Tucson was selected as the study site due to its rich and diverse food tradition and deep agricultural history. A pattern of decline in the knowledge and consumption of the wild greens is observed according to three overlapping themes: generational awareness, consumer demand and scarcity, and accessibility. The bureaucratic controls that bring calculability, efficiency, and predictability to the DFS are found to be influential in the decline in wild green knowledge and consumption by the study participants. The downward knowledge and consumption pattern is further considered in the context of participant agency within the DFS. Implications for practice include strategies for more purposefully leveraging community settings and alternative marketplaces to revitalize the knowledge and consumption of wild greens and other traditional foods. Recommendations are also provided for future research on the effects of rationalization within the DFS on human agency and traditional food consumption. [Graduate Student] Teresa De Koker, Matthew M. Mars, Robert M. Torres & Tanya M. Quist (2018) Wild greens knowledge and consumption: a qualitative exploration of human agency in the Southern Arizona food system, Food, Culture & Society, 21:3, 331-349, DOI: 10.1080/15528014.2018.1451040

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Date of publication:
2018

Research Categories

From Bread We Build Community: Entrepreneurial Leadership and the Co-creation of Local Food Businesses and Systems

Authors

Matthew M. Mars

This case study of a self-described community supported baker (CSB) in Southern Arizona explores entrepreneurial leadership as a model for promoting consumer co-creation of both local food businesses and food systems. The analytical focus of the case is the entrepreneurial strategy of the CSB to embed his customers in the creation of both his community supported business and the development of a more robust Southern Arizona local food system (LFS). Specifically, the CSB's business model positions customers not only as the purchasers of his product, but also as marketers of his breads, promoters of local grains, and champions of the Southern Arizona food movement. Data was collected through a series of individual interviews with the baker and other relevant informants, as well as through multiple instances of participant observation. The case illustrates the capacity of entrepreneurial leadership to serve as a model that promotes consumer co-creation of local food businesses and more cohesive and extensive LFSs. [Faculty]

Citation: Mars, M. M. (2015). From bread we build community: Entrepreneurial leadership and the co-creation of local food businesses and systems. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2015.053.005

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Date of publication:
2015

Research Categories

Adult Agricultural Literacy Education: Beyond the Conventional Boundaries

Authors

Matthew M. Mars

The notion of agricultural literacy is firmly rooted in a movement that mostly targets elementary and secondary student populations with a curricular focus that is heavily anchored in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content (Kovar & Ball, 2013; Pense, Leising, Portillo, & Igo, 2005; Russell, McCracken, & Miller, 1990). In this dominant context, agricultural literacy is celebrated as a platform that simultaneously brings 'real life' applications to STEM curricula and provides K-12 students with a deeper understanding of where and how the foods, fibers, and natural resources they consume are produced. Unfortunately, the agricultural literacy movement has largely left out an important and significant demographic: adult learners. For example. Kovar and Ball (2013) found that only 12.2% of the' studies on agricultural literacy published between 1988-2011 addressed non-educator adults. This exclusion is problematic considering adults are the primary decision-makers when it comes to food and fiber consumption. The argument here is not that there is little value in expanding the agricultural knowledge of K-12 learners based on their consumer agency (or lack thereof). However, there is also little logic to neglecting the agricultural literacy needs and interests of adults, especially when considered in the consumer market context. Why has the agricultural literacy of adults been overlooked? The answer is that it has not! Adults have been mostly left out of the agricultural literacy narrative specific to formal learning. This near omission is not surprising considering the capacity to reach adult learners through formal education channels are relatively limited. One notable exception is post-secondary education, which represents a formal learning environment with unmet opportunity to expand the agricultural knowledge of young adult learners (Kovar & Ball, 2013). Moreover, not all adults attend a college or university, which further limits the scope of post-secondary education initiatives aimed at the dissemination of agricultural information and knowledge. [Faculty]

Additional Information

Date of publication:
2017

Research Categories

Academic entrepreneurship (re)defined: significance and implications for the scholarship of higher education

Authors

Matthew M. Mars
Cecilia Rios-Aguilar

Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of academic entrepreneurship has emerged. This paper used content analysis to examine how researchers have conceptualized entrepreneurship in five leading higher education journals. The analysis revealed notable patterns in the application of theoretical and conceptual frameworks of entrepreneurship to higher education phenomena, as well as observable distinctions in how entrepreneurial models are applied in specific organizational, institutional, and geographical contexts. Results suggest that there is a paucity of attention paid to the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of entrepreneurship within higher education scholarship. We introduce a framework for strengthening the application of entrepreneurial models to higher education research that is grounded in the theoretical constructs of entrepreneurship as articulated in the economic and management literatures. [Faculty].

Additional Information

Date of publication:
2010

Research Categories